Reverse osmosis (RO) may be a filtration technique that removes several types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it’s on one aspect of a selective membrane.
The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized facet of the membrane and also the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the opposite aspect. To be “selective,” this membrane ought to not permit giant molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should enable smaller parts of the answer (like the solvent) to pass freely.
In the conventional osmosis method the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration. The movement of a pure solvent to equalize solute concentrations on each facet of a membrane generates a pressure and this can be the “osmotic pressure.” Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, so, is reverse osmosis.
The method is the same as membrane filtration. However, there are key differences between reverse osmosis and filtration. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, so the process will theoretically achieve good exclusion of particles irrespective of operational parameters like influent pressure and concentration.
Reverse osmosis, but, involves a diffusive mechanism therefore that separation efficiency is dependent on solute concentration, pressure, and water flux rate.Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification.
Reverse Osmosis is the reversal of the natural osmosis process. This process is employed to desalinate aqueous solutions. Using appropriate high-performance membranes it is attainable today to remove a lot of than 99% of all salts from an aqueous resolution.