Ambient Air Quality refers to the standard of out of doors air in our surrounding surroundings. AS per MOEF Guidelines, SD Enviro Engineers performs operation for collecting and testing the quality of ambient air with trained employees and latest instruments.
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring is required to determine the present quality of air. Air pollutants are added in the atmosphere from selection of sources that modification the composition of atmosphere and affect the biotic atmosphere. The concentration of air pollutants rely not solely on the quantities that are emitted from air pollution sources however also on the flexibility of the atmosphere to either absorb or disperse these emissions. The air pollution concentration vary spatially and quickly inflicting the air pollution pattern to vary with completely different locations and time thanks to changes in meteorological and topographical condition.
The sources of air pollutants embody vehicles, industries,domestic sources and natural sources. Because of the presence of high amount of air pollutants within the ambient air, the health of the population and property is obtaining adversely affected. Ambient air quality monitoring is distributed therefore as to come up with data that meets the objectives of monitoring. Ambient air quality monitoring programme are needed to work out the prevailing quality of air, analysis of the effectiveness of management programme and to develop new programme. The report aims towards developing a more uniform air monitoring network thus that information from varied stations is comparable. The report discusses the varied aspects of air quality monitoring network such as, which pollutants ought to be monitored, location where monitoring should be dole out and also the various techniques of monitoring. These needs function basis on that objectives of ambient air quality monitoring are determined.
Ambient air quality monitoring network involves selection of pollutants, selection of locations, frequency, length of sampling, sampling techniques, infrastructural facilities, man power and operation and maintenance costs. The areas to be chosen primarily are such areas that represent high traffic density, industrial growth, human population and its distribution, emission source, public complaints if any and also the land use pattern etc.
The most important parameters in specifying Ambient Air Quality are:
Particulate matter PM10
Particulate matter PM2.5
Sulphur dioxide (SO2),
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx),
Carbon Monoxide (CO) etc.
Particulate Matter – Major manmade sources of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) and Fine Particulate Matter (FPM) are as follows:
Emission from coal based power station
Emission from oil fired furnace/boiler
Emission from stone crusher, hot mix plants, lime kilns, foundry
Hospital waste incinerator
Emission from stationery DG sets/portable DG sets
Emission from diesel vehicles ( bus and trucks)
Emission from 2- stroke vehicles (2T oil used)
Resuspension of road dust
Burning of biomass/tyre, tube
Emission from waste oil reprocessing industries.
Sulphur dioxide – In a gaseous form, SO2 can irritate the respiratory system; in case of short-term high exposure, a reversible effect on lung functioning may occur, according to individual sensitivity. The secondary product H2SO4 primarily influences respiratory functioning. Its compounds, such as polynuclear ammonium salts or organosulfates, act mechanically in alveoli and, as easily soluble chemicals, they pass across the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract into the organism. Particulate aerosol formed by the gas-to-particle formation has been found to be associated with numerous health effects.
Nitrogen dioxide – Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant produced in combustion processes. Whenever nitrogen dioxide is present, nitric oxide (NO) is also found; the sum of NO and NO2 is collectively referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOx). NO2 primarily acts as an oxidizing agent that may damage cell membranes and proteins. At high concentrations, the airways may become acutely inflamed. In addition, short-term exposure may predispose towards an increased risk of respiratory infection.
Carbon Monoxide – CO is the most dangerous pollutant in Air. CO effects the people through the air intake, or is produced by overheating of piston type compressors. The air intake must be placed away from engine exhaust or other sources of Carbon monoxide. Headaches, dizziness, unconsciousness and death can result from exposure to elevated CO levels.
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